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減速機的不同之處有哪些

發布日期:2018年01月15日

減速機是一種相對精密的機械,使用它的目的是降低轉速,增加轉矩。它的種類繁多,型号各異,不同種類有不同的用途。減速器的種類繁多:
The reducer is a relatively precise machine, the purpose of which is to reduce the speed and increase the torque. It has a wide variety of types and different types, and different types have different uses. There are many kinds of retarder:

按照傳動類型可分為齒輪減速器、蝸杆減速器和行星齒輪減速器
According to the type of transmission, it can be divided into gear reducer, worm reducer and planetary gear reducer

按照傳動級數不同可分為單級和多級減速器
Can be divided into single and multistage decelerator according to the difference of transmission series

按照齒輪形狀可分為圓柱齒輪減速器、圓錐齒輪減速器和圓錐-圓柱齒輪減速器
According to the shape of the gear, it can be divided into cylindrical gear reducer, bevel gear reducer and conical gear reducer

按照傳動的布置形式又可分為展開式、分流式和同軸式減速器
According to the arrangement of transmission, it can be divided into unfolding, shunting and coaxial decelerator

今天我們就來分析一下常見的幾種減速機的區别。
Today we are going to analyze the differences in several common reducer.

一、轉向箱
One, steering box

轉向箱又名換向器、轉向器,是一種動力傳達機構,是減速機中的一個系列,在工業領域有很廣泛的應用。
Steering box, also known as commutator, steering gear, is a kind of power transmission mechanism, is a series of reducer, in the industrial field has a very wide range of applications.

轉向箱有單軸、雙橫軸、單縱軸,雙縱軸可選。速比1:1、1.5:1、2:1、2.5:1、3:1、4:1、5:1全部為實際傳動比。轉向箱可以正反運轉,低速或高速傳動平穩。轉向箱當速比不是1:1時,橫軸輸入、縱軸輸出為減速,縱軸輸入、橫軸輸出為增速。
The steering box has a single axis, a double axis, a single longitudinal axis, and a double longitudinal axis. The speed ratio 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1 are all actual transmission ratios. The steering box can run positive and negative, low speed or high speed drive smoothly. When the speed ratio of the steering box is not 1:1, the input of the horizontal axis and the output of the longitudinal axis are decelerated, and the input of the longitudinal axis and the output of the transverse axis are accelerated.

機殼:高剛性FC-25鑄鐵鑄造;
Shell: high rigidity FC-25 cast iron casting;

齒輪:齒輪采用優質高純淨度合金剛20CrMnTiH滲碳淬火,及研磨而成;
Gear: the gear is carburized and quenched with high quality, high purity and pure 20CrMnTiH, and it is made from grinding.

主軸:軸類采用合金剛調質、高懸重負荷能力;
Main shaft: the shaft type adopts the combination of golden rigidity, high load and heavy load.

軸承:配備重負荷能力的滾錐軸承;
Bearing: a rolling cone bearing with heavy load capacity;

油封:雙封唇片的油封、兼具防塵及防漏油的能力;
Oil seal: double sealing lip oil seal, both dustproof and leakproof oil.

潤滑:适當的潤滑油使用,可以發揮轉向箱的效率,并提高其運轉的壽命。

Lubrication: the proper use of lubricating oil can give full play to the efficiency of the steering box and improve its operating life.

二、行星減速機
Two, planetary reducer

在減速機家族中,行星減速機以其體積小,傳動效率高,減速範圍廣,精度高等諸多優點,而被廣泛應用于伺服、步進、直流等傳動系統中。其作用就是在保證精密傳動的前提下,主要被用來降低轉速增大扭矩和降低負載/電機的轉動慣量比。當電機和減速機間裝配時同心度保證的非常好時,電機輸出軸承受的僅僅是轉動力,運轉時也會很平滑。
In reducer family, planetary reducer is widely used in servo, step and DC transmission systems because of its many advantages such as small volume, high transmission efficiency, wide range of deceleration and high accuracy. Its function is to reduce the torque and reduce the rotational inertia ratio of the load / motor under the premise of ensuring the precision transmission. When the concentricity guarantee is very good when the motor and the reducer is assembled, the output shaft of the motor is only the rotating force, and the operation will be smooth.

然而不同心時,輸出軸要承受來自于減速機輸入端的徑向力,這個徑向力長期作用将會使電機輸出軸被迫彎曲,而且彎曲的方向随着輸出軸轉動不斷變化。輸出軸每轉動一周,橫向力的方向變化360度。如果同心度的誤差較大時,該徑向力使電機輸出軸溫度升高,其金屬結構不斷被破壞,最後該徑向力将會超出電機輸出軸所能承受的徑向力,最後導緻驅動電機輸出軸折斷。當同心度的誤差越大時,驅動電機輸出軸折斷的時間越短。
However, when the concentricity is different, the output shaft must bear the radial force from the input side of the reducer. The radial force will cause the output shaft of the motor to be bent for a long time, and the direction of the bending will change along with the rotation of the output shaft. For each rotation of the output axis, the direction of the lateral force changes 360 degrees. If the error of concentricity is large, the radial force will increase the output shaft temperature of the motor, and the metal structure will be destroyed. Finally, the radial force will exceed the radial force that the output shaft of the motor can bear, and finally lead to the breaking of the output shaft of the driving motor. When the error of concentricity is greater, the shorter the time of the drive motor output shaft is broken.

在驅動電機輸出軸折斷的同時,減速機輸入端同樣也會承受來自于電機方面的徑向力,如果這個徑向力同時超出了二者所能承受的最大徑向負荷的話,其結果也會導緻減速機輸入端産生變形甚至斷裂。因此,在裝配時保證同心度至關重要!
The output shaft of the drive motor is broken at the same time, reducer input will also suffer from motor radial force, if the maximum radial load and the radial force at the same time exceeds two person can bear the words, the results will lead to the reducer input end deformation and rupture. Therefore, it is essential to ensure the concentricity in assembly.

直觀上講,如果電機軸和減速機輸入端同心,那麼電機和減速機間的配合就會很緊密,它們之間的接觸面緊緊相連,而裝配時如果不同心,那麼它們間的接觸面之間就會有間隙。
Intuitively speaking, if the motor shaft and reducer input terminals are concentric, then the coordination between motor and reducer will be very close. The contact surfaces between them will be closely linked. If there is no concentricity in the assembly, there will be gaps between them.

同樣,減速機的輸出軸也有折斷或彎曲現象發生,其原因與驅動電機的斷軸原因相同。但減速機的出力是驅動電機出力和減速比之積,相對于電機來講出力更大,故減速機輸出軸更易被折斷。因此,用戶在使用減速機時,對其輸出端裝配同心度的保證也應十分注意!除了由于減速機輸出端裝配同心度不好,而造成的減速機斷軸以外,減速機的輸出軸如果折斷,不外乎以下幾點原因。
In the same way, the output shaft of the reducer also has broken or bending phenomenon, which is the same as that of the driving motor. But the output of the reducer is the product of driving motor output and deceleration ratio. The output shaft of the reducer is more easily broken than the motor, so the output shaft of the reducer is more easily broken. Therefore, when the user is using the reducer, the assurance of concentricity on its output end should also be paid great attention to. In addition to the broken shaft of the reducer caused by poor concentricity of the reducer output, the output shaft of the reducer is broken off, which is nothing more than the following reasons.

首先,錯誤的選型緻使所配減速機出力不夠。有些用戶在選型時,誤認為隻要所選減速機的額定輸出扭矩滿足工作要求就可以了,其實不然,一是所配電機額定輸出扭矩乘上減速比,得到的數值原則上要小于産品樣本提供的相近減速機的額定輸出扭矩,二是同時還要考慮其驅動電機的過載能力及實際中所需最大工作扭矩。理論上,用戶所需最大工作扭矩一定要小于減速機額定輸出扭矩的2倍。尤其是有些應用場合必須嚴格遵守這一準則,這不僅是對減速機裡面齒輪的保護,更主要的是避免減速機的輸出軸就被扭斷。
First of all, the error selection makes the gear reducer not available. Some users in the selection, mistakenly believe that as long as the selected rated output torque of reducer can meet the work requirements, in fact, is the rated output torque of the motor by the reduction ratio, the numerical principle is less than the sample products offer similar reducer rated output torque is two, while also taking into account the drive motor overload capacity and the actual required maximum torque. In theory, the maximum working torque required by the user must be less than 2 times the rated output torque of the reducer. Especially some applications must strictly abide by the rules, this is not only the protection of inside gear reducer, more important is to avoid the output shaft of the reducer is broken.

這主要是因為,如果設備安裝有問題,減速機的輸出軸及其負載被卡住了,這時驅動電機的過載能力依然會使其不斷加大出力,進而,可能使減速機的輸出軸承受的力超過其額定輸出扭矩的2倍而扭斷減速機的輸出軸。其次,在加速和減速的過程中,減速機輸出軸所承受瞬間的扭矩如果超過了其額定輸出扭矩的2倍,并且這種加速和減速又過于頻繁,那麼最終也會使減速機斷軸。
This is mainly because, if the installation problem, the output shaft of the speed reducer and the load is stuck, then drive motor overload ability will still continue to increase the output, then, may make the capacity of the output shaft of the reducer exceeds its rated output torque is 2 times and break the output shaft of the speed reducer. Secondly, during the acceleration and deceleration, if the torque of the reducer output shaft exceeds the rated output torque by 2 times, and this acceleration and deceleration is too frequent, it will finally make the reducer shaft broken.